Critically ill patients often have varying physiological needs to an average patient and often require different dosages of antibiotics and other drugs, particularly if they are on renal replacement therapies. There is also a controversy over whether bolus dosing or continuous infusion of β-lactams is more effective in antibiotic delivery in critically ill patients. Professor Lipman has pioneered work that demonstrates that patients in intensive care are not receiving enough antibiotics to achieve optimal levels to kill pathogens. This in turn leads to poorer health outcomes for patients and antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistant infections commonly occur in long stay, debilitated patients and contribute to increased risk of death, longer ICU and hospital stay, further weakness and long term dysfunction. This problem also contributes to patients being unable to be discharged from ICU or hospital and so exacerbating the shortage of acute hospital beds and increases in surgery waiting time.